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Naukowo o karierze – część pierwsza

W tym cyklu prezentujemy nasze teksty o charakterze naukowym, które odnoszą się do rynku pracy. W części pierwszej kilka słów o zjawisku seksizmu dotykające kobiet (czasami także mężczyzn) w życiu zawodowym.

Seksizm to z  negatywne postawy i zachowania wobec danej osoby wynikające z jej płci (Nelson, 2003).  Jak ów seksizm wpływa na kobiety? Aby odpowiedzieć na to pytanie, warto się wynikom kilku badań, w szczególności tych nad wpływem stereotypizacji zawartej w reklamach oraz seksizmem w języku. Przede wszystkim należy zwrócić uwagę na ogromne rozmiary wpływu, jaki ma na odbiorczynie obecność stereotypowych wizerunków kobiet w reklamach. Wizerunki przedstawicieli poszczególnych płci w programach reklamowych to temat pracy licznych autorów, przy czym najciekawsze wydaje się amerykańskie badanie przeprowadzone w 1987 roku. Sprawdzano w nim, czy pod wpływem reklam, w których kobiety przedstawione są w tradycyjnych rolach (jako opiekunki / strażniczki domowego ogniska), osoby badane zmienią stopień, w jakim aprobowały zaangażowanie kobiet w politykę. Wyniki wykazały, iż w grupie kobiet, której prezentowano przedstawicielki płci pięknej w bardziej stereotypowych ujęciach, w mniejszym stopniu popierano później karierę polityczną jako właściwy wybór dla pań. Okazało się więc, że – być może wskutek aktywizacji kulturowego stereotypu – tłumione zostawały postawy związane z potrzebą osiągnięć (Schwarz, Wagner, Bannert i Mathies, 1987; za: Nelson, 2003).

Kolejne badanie związane z tą tematyką potwierdziło tę hipotezę. Tym razem osoby badane (obojga płci) miały do obejrzenia spoty reklamowe (zgodne ze stereotypami płci lub też – przeciwnie – zupełnie im nie odpowiadające – na przykład kobieta zmywająca naczynia i kobieta naprawiająca samochód). Grupa kontrolna obejmowała tych, którzy mieli wymienić swoje ulubione programy telewizyjne. Uczestnicy mieli za zadanie napisanie eseju, w którym musieli scharakteryzować swoje życie za dziesięć lat. Grupa pań, które zostały wystawione na wpływ reklamy opierającej się na stereotypach, rzadziej wyobrażała sobie swoje osiągnięcia zawodowe, kładąc większy nacisk na domowe obowiązki. Grupa ta miała pod tym względem inne wyniki, niż grupa kontrolna, grupa mężczyzn czy grupa kobiet oglądająca materiały pozbawione treści zawierających stereotypy płciowe. Taki wynik badania dowodzi utrwalającego wpływu mediów na istnienie stereotypów płciowych i, biorąc pod uwagę fakt, iż przeciętny człowiek ma spory kontakt z przekazem medialnym, z perspektywy wewnętrznych barier kobiecych karier nie jest to dobra wiadomość (Geis, Brown, Jennings i Porter, 1984; za: Nelson, 2003).

Todd Nelson w swojej publikacji pt. „Psychologia uprzedzeń” przedstawia interesujący ciąg przyczynowo-skutkowy, powołując się na wyniki badań następujących naukowców: Eagly i Mladinic (1994), Cejka i Eagly (1999); Glick (1991), Glick, Wilk i Perreault (1995). Chodzi o to, że w związku z tym, że stereotypowo przypisuje się kobietom określone cechy, określonym cechom natomiast – konkretne zawody, w których owe cechy są niezbędne. Zawody przypisywane jednak tradycyjnie kobietom są tymi mniej prestiżowymi, w których możliwości awansu są znacznie ograniczone, natomiast zarobki – zazwyczaj niewysokie.

Istotnym czynnikiem, który blokuje możliwość awansu, są zresztą nie tylko czynniki zewnętrzne, takie jak szklany sufit, szklane schody ruchome czy lepka podłoga (Renzetti i Curran, 2005). Szklany sufit to „bariery związane z awansem i zajmowaniem kierowniczych stanowisk” (Mandal, 2007, s. 81), szklane schody ruchome – „fenomen barier w awansie kobiet w zawodach kobiecych” (Mandal, 2007, s. 81), a lepka podłoga – „wykonywanie zawodów o niewielkich możliwościach awansu, o niskim statusie i zarobkach” (Mandal, 2007, s. 81). Chodzi także o niski poziom aspiracji samych kobiet. Jak wykazali Jackson, Gardner i Sullivan (1995), przedstawicielki płci pięknej mają zazwyczaj niższe od mężczyzn oczekiwania w tej kwestii. Dochodzi do tego uczucie zniechęcenia, związane z faktem, że ta sama praca kobiety jest zazwyczaj opłacana gorzej od pracy wykonanej przez mężczyznę. Tę tezę przytaczają w swojej pracy Kay i Hagan (1995), powołując się na analizy płac przedstawicieli poszczególnych płci i na historię kobiecego wkraczania na rynek pracy – historię, która nie obejmuje przecież więcej niż kilka wieków (Gardner i Sullivan, 1995, Kay i Hagan, 1995; za: Nelson, 2003).

To, co najgroźniejsze w przypadku skutków stereotypów, to możliwość wystąpienia sytuacji, w której będziemy mieć do czynienia z tzw. zagrożeniem stereotypem – objawi się ono poprzez niemożność zachowania w sposób niezgodny ze stereotypem. Quinn i Spencer (1996; za: Nelson 2003) zbadali to zagadnienie, manipulując wartością diagnostyczną testu matematycznego. Popularna opinia głosi, iż kobiety gorzej niż mężczyźni radzą sobie z zadaniami matematycznymi. Jak się jednak okazało, badane wypadały gorzej na tle mężczyzn jedynie wówczas, gdy mówiono im, iż test ma istotną wartość diagnostyczną. W przypadku, gdy test prezentowano jako niemający tejże wartości diagnostycznej, przedstawiciele obojga płci uzyskali równie dobre wyniki.

W tym przypadku możemy więc mówić o zagrożeniu stereotypem. Jak ma się ono do wewnętrznych barier kobiecych karier? W mnóstwie dziedzin, które nie są tradycyjną kobiecą domeną, przedstawicielki płci pięknej uchodzą za te, które wypadają gorzej na tle mężczyzn. Świadomość istnienia tego przekonania może więc nie tylko mobilizować je do działania – może także wpływać na poziom wykonania zachowania niezgodnego ze stereotypem i – w wyniki zaistnienia wspomnianego zagrożenia – ów stereotyp potwierdzać. Co więcej, istotną rolę ogrywa tu również samospełniająca się przepowiednia. Chodzi o to, że jeśli przewidujemy dany obrót sprawy, dany wynik, prawdopodobieństwo jego wystąpienia zwiększa się właśnie pod wpływem owych oczekiwań. Co więcej, w związku z tym, że dziewczęta rzadziej zachęca się do zajmowania takimi dziedzinami wiedzy, jak matematyka, przywiązują one mniejszą wagę do tego zagadnienia. Generalnie poświęcają one mniejszą od chłopców ilość czasu ma doskonalenie się w tych sferach. Tym również można tłumaczyć gorsze wyniki kobiet w testach matematycznych (Fennema i Sherman, 1977; za: Renzetti i Curran, 2005).


Dołącz do dyskusji!

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