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Naukowo o karierze – część druga: płeć i wychowanie a role zawodowe

Oto kolejna część cyklu o charakterze naukowym. Przedstawiamy wyniki najciekawszych badań związanych z tematyką płci na rynku pracy. Tym razem kilka słów o procesie socjalizacji – wychowania – i jego wpływie na kształtowanie aspiracji młodych kobiet.


W procesie wychowania szczególny nacisk kładzie się na promowanie zachowań zgodnych z płcią (przykładem może być kupowanie dziewczętom lalek do zabawy, podczas gdy chłopcom sprezentować wypada raczej klocki lub samochodziki) (Mandal, 2003). Przyczynia się to zarówno do formułowania zupełnie innych oczekiwań w stosunku do przedstawicieli różnych płci (a więc studzenia zapału w przypadku chęci podążania ścieżką inną niż ta, którą przewiduje stereotyp), jak i kształtowania odmiennych zainteresowań. Trudno oczekiwać od dziewcząt zainteresowania dobrze opłacanymi zawodami, skoro studia inżynierskie wymagają nie tylko zdolności, które od dzieciństwa marginalizowano (jak wielu rodziców zachęca dziewczęta do majsterkowania?), ale także zainteresowania – a przecież i te starano się zakrzewić, ale zupełnie na innych gruntach. Czy faktycznie jednak wykorzystanie zabawek typowo chłopięcych pozwala na zmniejszenie różnicy między mężczyznami a kobietami w zawodach typowo męskich (na przykład inżyniera)? Okazuje się, że tak, świadczą o tym wyniki badań amerykańskich skoncentrowanych na tej tematyce. Doświadczenie odgrywa przecież istotną rolę w rozwoju zdolności przestrzennych, tak pożądanych w zawodzie architekta czy inżyniera budownictwa (Baenninger i Newcombe, 1989; za: Brannon, 2003).

            Szczególnie interesująca z punktu widzenia promowania określonych wzorców zachowań odpowiednich dla przedstawicieli poszczególnych płci jest analiza literatury – chodzi tu zarówno o książeczki dla dzieci, podręczniki szkolne jak i literaturę popularną. Małgorzata Cackowska z Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego przytacza polski przykład publikacji, w której występuje, jak zaznacza sama badaczka, „dominacja jednej płci i ugruntowanie stereotypów”. Książeczka, która stanowi przedmiot analizy, jest nie tylko szeroko dostępna na rynku, ale także wydana w wersji dwujęzycznej – można więc odnieść wrażenie wielkiej postępowości. Jednak nic bardziej mylnego – już dział „Zabawy chłopców” i „Zabawy dziewczynek” pokazuje, jak wielka segregacja zachodzi w sferze rozrywek dzieci. Co wynika z książki? Chłopcy uprawiają rozmaite sporty, pozwalają sobie także na grę na komputerze, natomiast dziewczęta piorą, prasują, bywają u fryzjera, spacerują z wózkiem lub odgrywają rolę księżniczki (Cackowska, 2006).

Autorzy książki zdają się nie zwracać uwagi na to, że pojęcie „zabaw odpowiednich dla chłopców” i „zabaw odpowiednich dla dziewczynek” stopniowo ewoluuje (chłopięce rozrywki są częściej włączane do repertuaru dziewcząt, odwrotne zjawisko zachodzi rzadziej). Nawet dwudziestoletnia autorka niniejszej pracy w przerwach między przebieraniem kolejnych lalek bawiła się przecież klockami, a więc produktem z „chłopięcej sfery”.  Biorąc pod uwagę przytaczaną przez autorkę analizy sztywność w pojmowaniu ról płciowych przez dzieci pięcioletnie (Brannon, 2002; za: Cackowska, 2006), trudno nie doszukiwać się w pozornie niewinnych książeczkach źródeł stereotypowego myślenia – także o sobie samej – u młodych kobiet, a w konsekwencji – kolejnych barier wewnętrznych na drodze do pełniejszego i bardziej efektywnego rozwoju zawodowego. O stereotypizacji rodzaju w książkach dla dzieci wspomina się też w kontekście wyboru bohaterów i sposobu charakteryzowania – nawet wówczas, gdy akcja jest osadzona w świecie zwierząt, samczyki wykazują się stereotypowo męskimi cechami, rola samiczek jest natomiast marginalizowana (Sadker i Steindam, 1989; za: Brannon, 2003).

Seksizmu w podręcznikach dla klas I-III szkoły podstawowej analizuje Dorota Pankowska w publikacji „Wychowanie a role płciowe”. Jak przejawia się ów seksizm? Przede wszystkim mamy do czynienia ze stereotypowymi ujęciami kobiet i mężczyzn. Przedstawicielki płci pięknej zajmują się głównie domem i dziećmi, a jeśli pracują – to jako sprzedawczyni lub nauczycielka (Lobban, 1989; za: Pankowska, 2003). Na polskim gruncie sytuacja wygląda bardzo podobnie – analizy podręczników wykazują na polaryzację rodzaju – podział zadań zależnie od płci. Zawody kobiet to tylko te, które łączą się z opiekuńczością i działalnością usługową – kosmetyczka, gospodyni, pielęgniarka – nie są to więc branże, w których można wysoko awansować, sporo zarabiać i – jednym słowem – robić oszałamiającą karierę. Zajęcia takie, na co warto zwrócić uwagę, nie wymagają specjalistycznych kwalifikacji i mobilności (Kalinowska, 1995; za: Pankowska, 2003). Szczególnie niepokojący okazuje się fakt, iż analiza podręczników powstałych (i dopuszczonych do użytku szkolnego) po 1989 roku, a więc po okresie przemian ustrojowych, wykazuje podobne tendencje do stereotypizacji. Rację ma więc Agnieszka Graff (2001), pisząc o przegranej szansie na emancypację – wraz z odzyskaniem wolności rozumianej jako wolność słowa, wolność polityczna, mamy do czynienia także z ograniczeniem wolności kobiet jako grupy – choćby na gruncie praw reprodukcyjnych.

Co ujawnia analiza podręczników? Chłopcy częściej niż dziewczynki pojawiają się w czytankach, pełnią ważniejsze role i, co istotne, role te są bardziej różnorodne. To dziewczynka jest zazwyczaj ową niemądrą istotką, której – w przytaczanym w książce dialogu – należy wszystko wytłumaczyć. Nie jest to zresztą kwestia marginalna – analiza 15 różnych podręczników do klas I-III przyniosła bardzo podobne wnioski – publikacje te zostały wprawdzie uwspółcześnione pod kątem nowych technologii (pojawia się komputer czy sprzęt wideo), ich treść sugeruje jednak, że przez kilkadziesiąt lat niewiele się zmieniło, jeśli chodzi o aktywność zawodową kobiet (Kalinowska, 1995; za: Pankowska, 2003).  Zjawisko to jest szczególnie zastanawiające także dlatego, że stereotypizacji doszukać się trudno w niemieckiej publikacji dla dzieci w podobnym wieku – publikacji, która również staje się przedmiotem analizy. Nie można jednak stwierdzić, aby dzieci w innych krajach były mniej wystawione na kontakt ze stereotypami płciowymi, jeśli weźmiemy pod uwagę jedną z ulubionych lektur współczesnych nastolatków, książkę autorstwa J.R. Rowling pt. „Harry Potter”.

Edyta Zierkiewicz i Anna Łysak (2006) z Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego dokonują analizy sagi o Harrym Potterze i przytaczają przykłady analiz dokonanych przez innych autorów, by dojść do przekonania, iż w momencie, gdy opisuje się osoby płci męskiej, język jest wyważony i cechuje go neutralność, natomiast w przypadku opisów dotyczących dziewcząt i kobiet owa neutralność zastąpiona zostaje sformułowaniami wyrażającymi negatywne emocje i opartymi na uprzedzeniach (Dresang, 2002; za: Łysak i Zierkiewicz, 2006). O ile zresztą Harry Potter przechodzi cudowną przemianę od pomocy domowej w domu, w którym się wychował, do prawdziwego czarodzieja, o tyle Hermiona Granger stopniowo staje się coraz mniej pewna siebie, wycofana, jej dojrzałość, przejście od dzieciństwa do dorosłości, wiąże się z tym, że – jako prawdziwa kobieta – staje się postacią z drugiego planu, godzi na to, aby dominującą pozycję miał ktoś inny. Wydawać by się mogło, że J. R. Rowling, jako kobieta, dostrzegać będzie – i prezentować w swoich książkach – sylwetki bohaterów bardziej zróżnicowane i niezwiązane ze stereotypami płciowymi – nic jednak bardziej mylnego (Łysak i Zierkiewicz, 2006).

Czyż taki przekaz nie stanowi tego, co znacznie wpływa na dziewczęcy sposób postrzegania świata i swojej roli – kobiecej roli – w owym świecie? Trudno jednocześnie być na drugim planie i piastować stanowisko głównego managera. Podobny wpływ na tworzenie wewnętrznych barier kobiecych karier wywierają podręczniki.  Przede wszystkim wzmacniają stereotypizację, tworzą złudzenie, iż pewne zawody nie są dla kobiet odpowiednie. Nawet najszczersza chęć zostania wykładowczynią uniwersytecką albo specjalistką od mechatroniki może zostać ostudzona wówczas, gdy jedyne wzorce, z jakimi mamy do czynienia, to zagubione dziewczątka zadające infantylne pytania mądrym chłopcom – albo też sprzedawczynie czy nauczycielki.


Dołącz do dyskusji!

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