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Naukowo o… nauce ekonomii: czy podstawy przedsiębiorczości wystarczą?

W kolejnej odsłonie cyklu „naukowo o…” opowiemy trochę więcej o tym, skąd młodzi ludzi w Polsce dowiadują się o ekonomii – i dlaczego podstawy przedsiębiorczości nie wystarczą. Zapraszamy do lektury!


 

Odpowiedzią na niski poziom wiedzy finansowej może być edukacja w tym zakresie. Edukacja finansowa to – jak czytamy w raporcie OECD – proces, dzięki któremu finansowi konsumenci/inwestorzy poprawiają swoje rozumienie produktów i koncepcji finansowych, a poprzez informację, nauczanie i/lub obiektywne doradztwo, rozwijają umiejętności i pewność siebie, aby stać się bardziej świadomymi ryzyka i możliwości finansowych, aby dokonywać świadomych wyborów, aby wiedzieć dokąd udać się po pomoc oraz aby podejmować inne skuteczne działania w celu poprawy swojego finansowego dobrobytu[1].

W Polsce obowiązkowe formy edukacji ekonomicznej koncentrują się na nauczaniu podstaw przedsiębiorczości w szkołach zawodowych i średnich (przedmiot ten został wprowadzony w 2002 roku) oraz na drobnych fragmentach programu kształcenia z matematyki oraz wiedzy o społeczeństwie. Elementy te są wprowadzane wcześnie, gdyż, jak wynika z podstawy programowej dla szkół podstawowych, już ośmiolatek zna pojęcie długu oraz rozumie konieczność jego spłacenia[2].

Niestety, podstawy przedsiębiorczości są jedynym przedmiotem, który w całości poświęcony jest kwestiom gospodarczym. Zakres programu obejmuje m.in. kształcenie umiejętności z zakresu komunikacji i podejmowania decyzji, a także przekazywanie wiedzy na temat funkcjonowania gospodarki oraz przedsiębiorstw. Część zajęć jest poświęcona także planowaniu kariery zawodowej oraz kształtowaniu postaw etycznych w biznesie oraz w relacjach pracownik-pracodawca. Uczeń powinien więc na przykład rozumieć sposób, w jaki działa giełda oraz znać sposób funkcjonowania polityki pieniężnej[3]. Założenia nie zawsze jednak odpowiadają rzeczywistym potrzebom i – co za tym idzie – niekoniecznie pozwalają osiągnąć zamierzone rezultaty. Powyższy system nauczania ekonomii ma bowiem liczne wady. Jak wskazuje Mariola Tracz z Akademii Pedagogicznej, należą do nich warunki organizacyjne, traktowanie podstaw przedsiębiorczości jako mniej istotnego przedmiotu oraz niedostosowanie form edukacji do realiów. Po pierwsze, podstawy przedsiębiorcze należałoby kształtować przez cały okres edukacji, a nie tylko w trakcie wybranych godzin lekcyjnych. Ograniczenie wiedzy o gospodarce do jednego – w dodatku dość marginalnego – przedmiotu powoduje, że nie jest ona traktowana wystarczająco poważnie. Nie jest możliwe zdawanie matury z tego przedmiotu, co może negatywnie wpływać na zainteresowanie ze strony uczniów. Matura z podstaw przedsiębiorczości byłaby także korzystna z punktu widzenia uczelni ekonomicznych – mogłaby ułatwić rekrutację na studia.

Kolejnym problemem są niedostateczne warunki organizacyjne. Aby zapewnić interaktywną formę zajęć, analizować studia przypadku i wykształcić u uczniów inicjatywę, należałoby prowadzić zajęcia w mniejszych grupach i z odpowiednim sprzętem multimedialnym, a także zadbać o odpowiednie przygotowanie merytoryczne nauczycieli. Dotyczy to zwłaszcza elementów przedsiębiorczości włączonych do programu wiedzy o społeczeństwie – jak wykazała M. Tracz, osoby, które prowadzą zajęcia na temat ekonomii, same często nie mają wykształcenia kierunkowego[4].

Co więcej, zajęcia z przedsiębiorczości pojawiają się późno w cyklu kształcenia. Rachunek w banku może założyć – za zgodą rodziców – już gimnazjalista, jednak na tym etapie nie otrzymuje on w szkole pełnych i obiektywnych informacji na temat funkcjonowania gospodarki. Brak obiektywizmu stanowi zresztą kolejny problem polskiej oferty edukacji ekonomicznej. Zdaniem Piotra Kowzana z Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego współczesna edukacja ekonomiczna w Polsce sprowadza się do „edukacji bankowej – zarówno ze względu na zaangażowanie banków w jej organizację, jak i ukierunkowanie na indywidualizm i konsumeryzm”[5].

Poza podstawami przedsiębiorczości istnieją liczne fakultatywne formy edukacji finansowej – w najszerszym ujęciu prezentuje je Mapa Edukacji Ekonomicznej. Wynika z niej, że przynajmniej połowa inicjatyw jest skierowana do osób, które wykazują ponadprzeciętne zainteresowanie ekonomią. Mniejszość stanowią inicjatywy skierowane do masowych odbiorców[6]. Do projektów pierwszego typu można zaliczyć m.in. konkursy przedmiotowe z przedsiębiorczości,  Szkolna Gra Giełdowa, Ekonomiczny Uniwersytet. Równie liczne są inicjatywy dla studentów ekonomii (np. Szkoła Liderów Rynku Kapitałowego, Market Leaders Forum, Stypendium im. L. Pagi). Drugą grupą są projekty skierowane do osób, które nie wykazują ponadprzeciętnego zainteresowania ekonomią i przedsiębiorczością, a ich poziom wiedzy nie odbiega od średniej Do takich projektów możemy zaliczyć warsztaty, kampanie społeczne oraz inicjatywy edukacyjne wspierane przez media. Dużą rolę w finansowaniu tych inicjatyw odgrywa Narodowy Bank Polski – wspiera m.in. audycje w Polskim Radiu czy miniserial emitowany w Telewizji Polskiej. Przykładem kampanii społecznej może być inicjatywa „Z naszych podatków dla nas” organizowana przez Ministerstwo Finansów – w interaktywny sposób informuje ona o tym, jak wykorzystywane są pieniądze pozyskane do budżetu państwa. Taka oferta fakultatywnej edukacji ekonomicznej charakteryzuje się tym, że inicjatywy dodatkowe są skierowane głównie do osób, które i tak posiadają już pewną wiedzę. Po drugie, większość projektów jest przeznaczona dla osób młodych, podczas gdy edukacja osób dorosłych jest zupełnie marginalizowana. Jest to pewien paradoks, do najmłodsze osoby powinny posiadać przynajmniej cząstkową wiedzę wyniesioną ze szkoły podstawowej (ewentualnie ze szkoły średniej), podczas gdy osoby starsze, które nie uczęszczały do szkoły w czasach gospodarki rynkowej, nie mają takich podstaw.

Dobre praktyki dotyczące edukacji finansowej Polska mogłaby czerpać z krajów sąsiednich, np. z Czech. W tym kraju edukacja finansowa jest adresowana do wszystkich grup wiekowych i stanowi kluczowy element ochrony konsumenta na rynku finansowym. Jest ona na tyle istotna z punktu widzenia rządu, że Ministerstwo Finansów wydało dokument „Narodowa strategia edukacji finansowej”. Takie podejście zostało uznane przez Komisję Europejską za wzorzec postępowania w walce z niskim poziomem świadomości finansowej obywateli[7].

[1] OECD, Improving Financial Literacy: Analysis of Issues and Policies, OECD, Paris, 2005, s. 14.

[2] P. Kowzan, Krytyczna czy bankowa. Edukacja ekonomiczna na uniwersytecie i poza nim, źródło: www.praktykateoretyczna.pl/PT_nr7_2013_NOU/12.Kowzan.pdf [dostęp 1.12.2015]

[3] Podstawa programowa przedmiotu Podstawy Przedsiębiorczości, źródło: http://men.gov.pl/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/4e.pdf  [dostęp 1.12.2015]

[4] M. Tracz, O niektórych kryteriach doboru treści nauczania do podstawy programowej i programu nauczania podstaw przedsiębiorczości [w:] Przedsiębiorczość a współczesne wyzwania cywilizacyjne, Z. Zioło, T. Rachwał (red.), seria: Przedsiębiorczość – Edukacja nr 1, Zakład Przedsiębiorczości i Gospodarki Przestrzennej IG AP w Krakowie, Wydawnictwo „MiWa”, Kraków, 2005.

[5] P. Kowzan, Krytyczna czy bankowa, Edukacja Ekonomiczna na uniwersytecie i poza nim, źródło: www.praktykateoretyczna.pl/PT_nr7_2013_NOU/12.Kowzan.pdf [dostęp 1.12.2015]

[6] Mapa Edukacji Finansowej 2015, źródło: https://zbp.pl/dla-konsumentow/edukacja-ekonomiczna [dostęp 1.12.2015]

[7] Prezes banku Citi Handlowy apeluje o stworzenie Narodowej strategii edukacji finansowej, źródło: http://prnews.pl/nasz-gosc/slawomir-s-sikora-citi-handlowy-42497.html  [dostęp 1.12.2015]


Dołącz do dyskusji!

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