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Naukowo o transformacji ustrojowej w Polsce: co się zmieniło w gospodarce?

Oto kolejna odsłona cyklu, w którym prezentujemy dorobek naukowy, aby wyjaśniać Wam zjawiska związane z gospodarką i społeczeństwem. Tym razem zapraszamy do lektury tekstu na temat transformacji ustrojowej.


Transformacja ustrojowa wiązała się ze zmianami w sferze wartości. Radykalnie zmienił się wzorzec sukcesu – poza wartościami rodzinnymi, samorealizacją i satysfakcją z życia zawodowego znacznie bardziej zaczął się liczyć sukces materialny[1]. Być może właśnie promowanie postaw indywidualistycznych w miejsce kojarzonego z socjalizmem kolektywizmu powoduje, że „gdy studenci w Londynie, Madrycie, Barcelonie, Atenach, Rzymie czy Nowym Jorku wychodzą na ulice, by wspólnie protestować przeciw neoliberalnej polityce zaciskania pasa i walczyć o edukację rozumianą jako dobro wspólne, ich polscy rówieśnicy wyczerpują swój życiowy impet i aspiracje w indywidualnej >>grze o staż<<”[2].

Gospodarczy kontekst transformacji stanowi temat na osobne opracowanie, warto jednak zwrócić uwagę na kilka istotnych aspektów, które zmieniły sposób myślenia o gospodarce. Co ciekawe, prawie połowa Polaków nie jest w stanie powiedzieć, czy reformy przeprowadzone po 1989 roku udały się, czy też się nie udały[3].

Po pierwsze, istotnym aspektem kształtującym świadomość Polaków były zmiany na rynku pracy – dotychczasowa stabilizacja i obowiązek pracy, zostały zastąpione niepewnością, koniecznością rywalizacji o wolne stanowiska. Skończyła się epoka zakładów pracy, które dotychczas pełniły zarówno gospodarcze, jak i społeczne funkcje. Zwracają na to uwagę socjologowie badający pozaekonomiczne aspekty transformacji[4]. Rozdźwięk pomiędzy oczekiwaniami w stosunku do pracodawców był szczególnie widoczny w przypadku przejmowania państwowych przedsiębiorstw przez zagraniczne koncerny. Z jednej strony wiązało się to z licznymi korzyściami (m.in. szybszym przepływem know-how, zastrzykiem finansowym na inwestycje[5]), z drugiej strony budziło opór ze strony zatrudnionych. Zastąpienie współpracy rywalizacją i pomysłowości koniecznością przestrzegania reguł to tylko niektóre ze skutków wprowadzenia zachodnich zasad funkcjonowania przedsiębiorstw – szerzej pisze o tym Elizabeth Dunn w opracowaniu „Prywatyzując Polskę” – na przykładzie rzeszowskich zakładów spożywczych pokazuje ogólne tendencje związane z transformacją ustrojową. Zmieniły się nie tylko zasady zatrudnienia, ale pojawiło się także bezrobocie, będące nowym zjawiskiem dla osób wychowanych w czasach socjalistycznych[6].

Po drugie, w Polsce zaobserwowano znaczny wzrost rozwarstwienia dochodów mierzony współczynnikiem Giniego. Jak pisze M. Brzeziński, „dynamika wzrostu nierówności dochodowych w takich krajach jak Czechy, Węgry, Słowacja i Słowenia była w mniejszym lub większym stopniu niższa [niż innych krajów Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej] – stąd kraje te w  większości (poza Węgrami) charakteryzują się obecnie wyraźnie niższym poziomem nierówności dochodowych niż Polska. (…) Wydaje się, że wzrost nierówności dochodowych w Polsce jaki dokonał się w ostatnich dwóch dekadach należał do umiarkowanie wysokich wśród krajów transformacji gospodarczej[7]. Rozwarstwienie dochodów pozostaje jednak mniejsze niż w większości krajów zachodnich[8], jednak krótki czas, w jakim wzrosło, może przyczyniać się do poczucia, iż jest ono zbyt duże lub znacznie większe niż w innych krajach. Co więcej, urynkowienie polskiej gospodarki odbyło się nie w ramach stopniowych przemian, ale w formie gwałtownych przekształceń, co mogło wpłynąć znacząco na wzrost poziomu niepewności (i niezadowolenia) społeczeństwa[9].

Po trzecie, zróżnicowanie dochodów przyczyniło się także do zróżnicowania konsumpcji. Przyczyniła się do tego dostępność nowych, atrakcyjnych produktów oraz usług finansowych, nieznanych wcześniej Polakom. W związku z tym nastąpiła swoista monetaryzacja świadomości[10] – wobec tego, że na rynku wreszcie pojawiły się zróżnicowane produkty, Polacy poznali wartość pieniądza, doświadczyli różnic w zakresie dostępu do dóbr i stylów życia. Z tej przyczyny na myślenie o swojej pozycji społecznej zaczął w istotny sposób wpływać status materialny i liczba posiadanych dóbr – nie było to tak oczywiste w czasach PRL, w epoce gospodarki niedoboru[11]. Poza dostępem do dóbr pojawiło się także ryzyko frustracji związanej z tym, że nie na wszystko będzie kogoś stać, a niektóre błędne decyzje finansowe mogą mieć dramatyczne skutki (jak w przypadku tzw. afery Amber Gold). Nie bez znaczenia był też fakt, iż duża część społeczeństwa postrzegała banki jako instytucje zaufania publicznego[12] – niezrozumienie zmieniającej się roli tej instytucji (w gospodarce rynkowej zorientowanej na zysk) mogło mieć dramatyczne konsekwencje (o czym świadczy m.in. kontrowersje wokół kredytów walutowych).

[1] F. Bylok, Wzór sukcesu w społeczeństwie polskim  w okresie transformacji społeczno-ustrojowej, źródło: http://www.annalesonline.uni.lodz.pl/archiwum/2005/2005_01_bylok_87_96.pdf [dostęp 11.11.2015]

[2] EduFactory. Samoorganizacja i opór w fabrykach wiedzy, Ha!art, Kraków, 2012, s. 10.

[3] Diagnoza społeczna 2015. Warunki i jakość życia Polaków, online: http://www.diagnoza.com/pliki/raporty/Diagnoza_raport_2015.pdf [dostęp 11.11.2015]

[4] M. Marody (red.), Kulturowe aspekty transformacji ekonomicznej, Instytut Spraw Publicznych, Warszawa, 2007.

[5] Raport Narodowego Banku Polskiego, źródło: https://www.nbp.pl/konferencje/falenty2002/pdf_pl/mgkd.pdf, [dostęp 1.12.2015]

[6] E. Dunn, Prywatyzując Polskę, Wydawnictwo Krytyki Politycznej, Warszawa, 2008.

[7] M. Brzeziński, Nierówności w Polsce na tle krajów Unii Europejskiej, źródło: http://coin.wne.uw.edu.pl/mbrzezinski/research/MB_KEP_2013.pdf [dostęp 1.02.2016]

[8] Distribution of Family Income – The World Factbook, źródło: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html [dostęp 20.12.2015]

[9] N. Klein, Doktryna szoku: jak współczesny kapitalizm wykorzystuje klęski żywiołowe i kryzysy społeczne, Muza, Warszawa, 2009.

[10] F. Bylok, Wzór sukcesu w społeczeństwie polskim  w okresie transformacji społeczno-ustrojowej, źródło: http://www.annalesonline.uni.lodz.pl/archiwum/2005/2005_01_bylok_87_96.pdf [dostęp 11.11.2015]

[11] J. Czapiński, Uziemienie polskiej duszy, „Kultura i Społeczeństwo” 1994, nr 3, s. 28.

[12] Stan wiedzy ekonomicznej Polaków. Raport Instytutu Wolności i Raiffaisen Polbank, źródło: www.instytutwolnosci.pl [dostęp 1.06.2015]


Dołącz do dyskusji!

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